Masers and optical pumping by American Institute of Physics Download PDF EPUB FB2
Masers and optical pumping. New York, Published for the American Association of Physics Teachers, by the American Institute of Physics  (OCoLC) Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: American Association of Physics Teachers. OCLC Number: Notes: Cover title. "A project of the AAPT Committee on Resource Letters.
Shortly before his death in January Professor Alfred Kastler, who won the Nobel physics prize for his work on optical pumping, wrote an extensive book review of Masers and Lasers by.
Masers and Lasers: An Historical Approach examines the progress of research and practical use of lasers chronologically, covering the fundamental science in detail alongside fascinating biographical sketches of famous physicists and summaries of seminal by: Infrared and Optical Masers A.
SCHAWLOW AND C. TOWNES* Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jesey (Received Aug ) DECEM The extension of maser techniques to the infrared and optical region is considered. It is shown that by using. Physics/2 Optical Pumping 3 K =5/2 and 87Rb with K =3/ j =1/2 rubidium ground states for the two isotopes are split by the hyperﬁne interaction into doublets with F = K±1/ hyperﬁne interaction is the magnetic interaction of the nu-File Size: KB.
The extension of maser techniques to the infrared and optical region is considered. It is shown that by using a resonant cavity of centimeter dimensions, having many resonant modes, maser oscillation at these wavelengths can be achieved by pumping with reasonable amounts of incoherent light.
For wavelengths much shorter than those of the ultraviolet region, maser-type amplification appears to. What is a MASER. MASER stands for Microwave Amplification by Stimulation Emission of Radiation.A LASER is a MASER that works with higher frequency photons in the ultraviolet or visible light spectrum (photons are bundles of electromagnetic energy commonly thought of as "rays of light" which travel in oscillating waves of Masers and optical pumping book wavelengths).
Optical pumping is a process in which light is used to raise (or "pump") electrons from a lower energy level in an atom or molecule to a higher one. It is commonly used in laser construction, to pump the active laser medium so as to achieve population technique was developed by Nobel Prize winner Alfred Kastler in the early s.
Optical pumping is also used to cyclically. Hydroxyl masers occur at a distance of about to astronomical units (AU), water masers at a distance of about to AU, and silicon monoxide masers at a distance of about 5 to 10 AU.
Both radiative and collisional pumping resulting from the shockwave have been suggested as the pumping mechanism for the silicon monoxide masers. . Key Difference: Maser generally refers to a Masers and optical pumping book which is used for creation and amplification of an intense and coherent beam of high frequency radio waves.
Laser is same as the maser, but it specifically applies to infrared or optical wavelengths only. Laser has evolved from maser.
Maser stands for Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The absolute value of the optical depth is then referred to as the maser gain. Detailed models of the H 2 O masers in these sources show that pumping is controlled by collisions. The model predicts correctly the location of the H 2 O maser region and its variation with the stellar mass loss rate, but these observational tests are not as.
Optical pumping of microwave masers Abstract: The application of optical pumping techniques to microwave masers is discussed. It is shown that optical pumping appears to be promising for achieving low noise maser action at very high frequencies and at elevated temperatures.
Also it was previously found [5, that the Yb3~ ESR signal can be reduced by exciting molecular vi- brations of the water and ethyl sulfate molecules with near-IR radiation in the wavelength region 1 ~sm to 2 ~m. The optical pumping effect was largest (50% re- duction in ESR) for O = 0, where the spin—lattice cou- pling is weakest.
Optical pumping, the inversion technique used in the original ruby laser, is an extension of the “three-level” maser scheme proposed by Bloembergen (Bloembergen, ) for microwave solid-state Figure we show a system of three energy levels, whose occupation, as shown by the length of the bars, obeys the Boltzmann distribution.
We now apply a “pump” or intense optical. Optical pumping is the process by which photons are used to raise the energy level states in an atom or molecule, re-distributing them from thermodynamic equilib-rium so that the majority of the atoms occupy a single energy state.
The discovery of optical pumping has most notably been critical to the development of lazers and masers, but has also. Modern masers can be designed to generate electromagnetic waves at not only microwave frequencies but also radio and infrared frequencies.
For this reason Charles Townes suggested replacing "microwave" with the word "molecular" as the first word in the acronym maser. The laser works by the same principle as the maser, but produces higher frequency coherent radiation at visible wavelengths. mW of absorbed pump power at these wavelengths can produce dB of amplifier gain.
Pump Efficiencies of 11 dB/mW achieved at nm. Pumping can also be performed at and nm with GaAlAs laser diodes. Pump efficiencies are lower but these lasers can be made with high output power.
The subject program was undertaken to develop technology for producing a potassium vapor arc lamp with a hour lifetime. The lamp is to be used as optical pump source in a Nd:YAG laser transmitter as part of a space communications system.
The lamp lifetime goal was successfully achieved, a characteristic lifetime of approximately hours being demonstrated for lamps built late in the. Additional Physical Format: Online version: Heavens, O.S. Optical masers. Easton, Pa., Optical Society of America, (OCoLC) Document Type.
Optical pumping, in physics, the use of light energy to raise the atoms of a system from one energy level to another. A system may consist of atoms having a random orientation of their individual magnetic fields.
When optically pumped, the atoms will undergo a realignment of individual magnetic fields with respect to the direction of the light beam; that is, there will be a rearrangement of.
H2O masers themselves find thereby a new pumping source in these random shocks. Masers in hydrogen recombination lines, discovered 8 years ago, originate in a circumstellar disk surrounding a massive star MWC A. They give a possibility to investigate kinematics and structure of the disk. Oliver S.
Heavens Optical Masers Methuen & Acrobat 7 Pdf Mb. Scanned by artmisa using Canon DRC + flatbed option. Because of this impediment, most in the field gave up on masers and moved on to lasers, which use the same principles of physics, but work with optical light instead of microwaves.
In end-pumping, the light from one or many pump sources is coupled via an optical coupling system through a front surface.
Additionally, end-pumping can be provided by pumping through either backward surface or both end sides of the fiber laser. On the other hand, in side-pumping the pump source is connected through a side surface. Maser, device that produces and amplifies electromagnetic radiation mainly in the microwave region of the maser operates according to the same basic principle as the laser (the name of which is formed from the acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation”) and shares many of its characteristics.
The first maser was built by the American physicist. The development of new sources and methods in the terahertz spectral range has generated intense interest in terahertz spectroscopy and its application in an array of fields. Presenting state-of-the-art terahertz spectroscopic techniques, Terahertz Spectroscopy: Principles and Applications focuses on time-domain methods based on femtosecond laser sources and important recent applications in 5/5(2).
optical pumping rate w can be tuned by varying the pump light intensity, up to Bs 1 (refs 23–26). The cavity mode has a decay rate determined by the cavity Q-factor, k c¼o c/Q, due to photon leakage and coupling to the input/output channels.
The decay of the spin collective mode is caused by various mechanisms. First, the spin relaxation (T. A detailed review of the present knowledge of gaseous optical masers is given.
The paper is divided into four main sections: The first section contains a summary of basic general considerations, ranging from properties of the normal cavity modes through methods of measurement and interpretation in gas systems. The second contains a review of the dominant excitation mechanisms which have been.
The effects of optical pumping, buffer gas, and temperature on the maser are discussed, and experimental results are given. The short-term stability for observation times of about one second is expected to be about one part in 10 Masers and lasers, second edition: an historical approach Article (PDF Available) in Contemporary Physics 57(2) December with Reads How we measure 'reads'.
By optical pumping with an intense lamp (ﬂash lamp) or another laser one can pump a signiﬁcant fraction of the atoms from the ground state with population N0 into the excited state N3 both for the three level laser operating according to scheme shown in ﬁgure (a) or N4 in the case.
CHAPTER 7.For a more complete discussion of optical pumping see the book "Optical Pumping" by Bernheim or the extensive review article of Skrotskii and Izyjumova in which 87Rb and 23Na** are discussed in detail.
Safety Reminders • Be very careful not to drop or otherwise damage the rubidium vapour cell. It is at low.room-temperature masers that can operate with reduced optical pumping power requirements. Here we describe a means to dramatically reduce the optical pumping requirement of a room-temperature Earth’s ﬁeld maser by using a very high permittivity incipient ferroelectric.
Two orders of .